Isa 11:11-16; 27:12-13; Ezek 36:24
This second re-gathering from various lands began in earnest after Israel became a nation
in 1948. The culmination may occur at Messiah�s coming and establishment of his government
Israel defeats Egypt.
Israel defeated Egypt in the preemptive Six Day War of 1967 and defended itself against an
Arab attack in 1973. However, a complete defeat and the subsequent turning of Egypt to the
Lord may yet be fulfilled.
Egypt turns to the Lord.
The events in this passage are not typically included in today�s end times scenarios.
They may occur after the Lord�s coming, or perhaps even before.
Highway connecting Egypt and Syria.
These Arab countries have primarily worked together against Israel, although Egypt has at
times pursued peace, e.g., the 1977 Camp David Accords, and even Syria participated in
peace negotiations in 2000.
Egypt, Syria, Israel allies.
Egypt and Syria have been allies against Israel, but not with Israel.
Messenger to prepare the way.
Mal 3:1; 4:5
Many end times scenarios indicate a John the Baptist role, but it is not clear from other
Biblical references what form this might take, whether it will literally be a single person,
the 144,000 witnesses, or something else we can�t anticipate.
Turmoil to north gives spirit rest.
Israel dominates region.
Is 11:11-16; Zech 10:10-11
This would require additional military conquest, or else it will only happen after the
Many false Christs will deceive many
There have been many false Christs throughout the last two millennia. We can expect even
more as the final end times unfold.
The Church needs to return to their first love; be prepared to suffer; reject false teachers;
obey the word; be fervent in dedication to Christ.
While there have always been pockets of fervent, obedient believers, the bulk of the nominal
Church has been in constant need of revival.
First & second seal; wars and rumors of war.
Matt 24:6; Rev 6:1-4
There has been no lack of real and imagined war at any time in history. However, this seems
to indicate increased intensity and focus on a major, perhaps global, figure, who may talk
about peace. But the result is even more deadly warfare, not just within nations, as has been
the pattern in the last part of the 20th century, but between nations, as in the previous world
wars. However, this is only the beginning, and the global figure at this point may not be the
Third seal; inflation
Global inflation is a consequence of war and other disruptions.
Fourth seal; sword, famine, earthquakes, plagues and beasts
Rev 6:7-8; Matt 24:7-8
A fourth of the earth is engulfed in a variety of deadly human and natural forces.
The magnitude of this distress should be a clear indication of the beginnings of end times
2 Pet 3:3-4
In spite of the clear warning signs, most will deny that anything supernatural is occurring.
Today, with all of the information about end times, the mass media does not give credence to
biblical warnings. Perhaps the wide diversity of opinion within the church adds to this
confusion and encourages the world to dismiss the conflicting claims, even though there is a
core of truth in them.
Fifth seal; saints martyred (first group)
Matt 24:9; Rev 6:9-11; Rev 12:11
As the spotlight turns on true believers, we will become tempting targets to be blamed and
ultimately betrayed by those around us who are deceived by false teachers. Our salvation is
to be witnesses to the blood of Christ, even to death. We must not only expect persecution,
but also welcome it as a sign of faithfulness. Note that the �souls� of the martyrs are seen
under the altar and are given robes, whereas later the �people� are seen in white robes
before the throne.
Falling away, increase of wickedness, love grown cold
2 Thess 2:3; Matt 24:10-12
A sure sign that we are to endure righteous persecution is that even those who have appeared
to be believers and prophets will turn on us. We must not be deceived into thinking that we
will be gathered to the Lord before this rebellion against the faith occurs and the Antichrist
is on the scene. There are other interpretations of these passages that seem to strain to
support preconceptions about when God�s people will be gathered to him.
Sixth seal; heavens, sun and moon darkened; cloudy; earthquake;
stars fall; sky rolls up;
mountains thrown down
Isa 13:10; Ezek 30:3; Joel 2:10; Matt 24:29; Rev 6:12-14
These are the dramatic, unmistakable signs of the beginning of God�s wrath. Many commentators
state that the trials prior to this point have been Satan�s wrath being poured out on man, but
that from this point on we see God�s wrath being poured out.
Proud brought low.
Isa 2:6-22; Rev 6:15-17
This is the reason for judgment.
144,000 Jews sealed
Prior to God�s wrath being poured out on the land, sea and trees, a certain number of believers,
clearly Jews, are marked for protection during much of the remaining great tribulation.
Saints appear in heaven from the great tribulation,
prior to 7 last plagues
Rev 7:9-17; 15:2-4
These could be the rest of the saints killed in the great tribulation, as mentioned in Rev 6:11
or, since there is no direct mention of death, it could be a new group, perhaps raptured at this
point, who are spared God�s wrath about to be poured out on the earth. The emphasis, however,
seems to be on their not having to suffer any more of the great tribulation, rather than avoiding
the difficulties to come.
Seventh seal; half-hour silence; prior to trumpets
This heavenly pause probably signifies the importance of what immediately follows. The incense
and prayers of the saints point to holy recompense for the horrors they have endured up to this
time as mentioned in Rev 6:10.
First through fourth trumpets; destruction of 1/3 of land, sea,
rivers, sun, moon, stars
Zech 13:8-9; Rev 8:7-12
There is much speculation of the causes of these disasters. Asteroids, nuclear explosions,
volcanoes, etc., could play a role, as could unknown supernatural forces. The fraction one-third
may indicate the beginning of God�s wrath�enough to show the magnitude of the sin that has brought
it about, but not so much as to destroy all hope of recovery. God is still leaving room for
Fifth trumpet; locusts torment those not sealed
The size, composition, and physical reality of these creatures has also been much debated,
although it is not a stretch to imagine a form of locust that could easily fit the description.
Regardless, this is the first distinction between the saved and the lost through physical
suffering. The message of holy separation cannot be clearer if even an insect can tell the
Sixth trumpet; 200,000,000 kill 1/3 of mankind
Many commentators have had a problem with the large number of these troops, and have
spiritualized them or implied that the number could be symbolic, or even wrong. Others see an
oriental army with the horses being either literal animals or figurative tanks or other
vehicles of war. Many also see this as parallel to Rev 16 where the armies of the world are
gathered at Armageddon. The army kills through the plagues released from the horses� mouths,
which could refer to weapons such as flamethrowers, or chemical or nuclear warfare.
Little scroll & 7 thunders prior to seventh
trumpet; no more delay
This heavenly scene demonstrates the seriousness of the following events, which likewise have
both a heavenly and earthly meaning. The reference to no more delay may indicate that there is a
time gap prior to the seventh trumpet. This may refer to some or all of the time the two witnesses
minister on earth.
2 witnesses cause no rain, turn waters to blood, cause
plagues, die and are raised; earthquake
While there is no explicit relationship of this 3� year period to the 7 years in Daniel 9:27 or
the 3� year period in Daniel 12:7, many believe that the witnesses coincide with the latter half
of the 7 year period, during which judgments are poured out on earth. The witnesses are an
explicit testimony that cannot be ignored or explained away in natural terms. The reaction of
the world demonstrates the righteousness of the even more severe judgments to follow, and leaves
no doubt as to their source.
Dead raised and believers� bodies changed, in a moment,
at last trump, caught up with the Lord.
1 Thess 4:16-17; 1 Cor 15:51-53; Isa 26:19
While the events in 1 Thessalonians 4 and 1 Corinthians 15 may not occur at this point in
Revelation 11, there is a parallel with the raising of the dead witnesses, accompanied by a loud
voice from heaven, and followed by the seventh and last trumpet. However, there is nothing else
in Revelation 11 to indicate a mass �rapture� at this point.
1 Thess 4:16; Matt 24:31; 1 Cor 15:52
Again, the juxtaposition of the trumpet call and the gathering of the elect in Matthew 24, 1
Thessalonians 4, and 1 Corinthians 15 with this juncture in Revelation, is just a convenience,
since there is no other obvious raising of the dead at a trumpet in Revelation.
Third woe, seventh trumpet, wrath, judgment
The scene shifts to heaven, where God�s holiness and reason for judgment are further described.
Jews flee from Antichrist to desert and are protected by God for
3 1/2 years; Antichrist then persecutes saints
Rev 12; Matt 24:15-20
The woman in this symbolic picture is generally recognized as Israel, who gave Christ to the
world, but will be pursued by Satan through his agents. Apparently the Jews will escape
supernaturally for 3� years, during which time the beast persecutes the saints instead. In order
for the Jews to escape, it appears they will have to be aware of these New Testament scriptures.
Zeph 2:3; Isa 26:20-21
Those seeking righteousness will be hidden in the time of God�s wrath on the world.
Antichrist has 7 heads, each with a crown and a blasphemous name;
and 10 horns, each with a crown
Rev 12:3; 13:1
The dragon in 12:3 is clearly Satan, based on v 4. The beast in 13:1 must then be the Antichrist,
empowered by Satan. Both Satan and the beast have seven heads and ten horns. However, Satan has
7 crowns on his 7 heads, whereas the beast has 10 crowns on his 10 horns. Based on the
interpretation in Rev 17, the crowns apparently signify kings. Satan�s 7 kings probably span
history whereas the beast�s 10 kings are evidently contemporaneous with the beast.
4 beasts--lion/eagle, bear, leopard, terrible beast.
Dan 7:3-7; Rev 13:1,2
The beast in Revelation has the most deadly characteristics of all 4 beasts in Daniel 7. Since
Daniel�s beasts represent historical kingdoms, this �ultimate� beast is indeed the culmination of
Satan�s efforts over history to corrupt and destroy mankind.
Antichrist has fatal wound healed
This could be a real or counterfeit �resurrection� that would convince many of the beast�s
supernatural power. It�s interesting that one of the heads exhibits this healing. This may be
the last and current king in the series of 7, who, in fact, is the Antichrist, although the previous
6 would probably have had various characteristics of Antichrist.
Antichrist has withered arm and blinded right eye.
This reference is likely to the Antichrist, and gives a very observable clue to his physical
appearance. However, as with other characteristics, we don�t know the timing. For example, in
the case of a recent candidate for Antichrist, Adolf Hitler, the damage to his eye and arm
occurred later in the war.
Antichrist makes covenant with Israel, breaks it after 3�
years; takes away sacrifice; abomination of desolation
Dan 8:11; 9:27; 12:11; Matt 24:15
While the timings of the 7 years, 3� years, 1290 days, 1335 days, and 2300 evenings and mornings
are variously interpreted, the initial event seems to be the 7 year peace covenant which is
treacherously interrupted mid-way. A recent candidate for this covenant was the 1993 Oslo
Accords, signed by Israel and the PLO. The speculation by prophecy watchers surrounding this
treaty illustrates the difficulty in determining the beginning point of a significant prophetic
event. The lesson is that we probably need to see multiple corroborating events before assigning
permanent significance to any one event.
Man of sin revealed and sets up image of self in temple.
2 Thess 2:3-4; Rev 13:4,14
There will be no doubt concerning the Antichrist�s identity at this point. His image will be
set up in the temple, which will have been rebuilt by this time, and he will proclaim himself
Antichrist blasphemes God, persecutes saints/holy people 3�
years, and is defeated.
Dan 7:25; 12:7; Rev 11; 13:5-7,10
This will be a devastating time for God�s holy people, and will require God�s grace to persevere.
Note that the full 3� years is associated with persecution of the saints.
Greeks defeated by God on Israel�s behalf.
While this may have been a near reference to the Maccabean revolt against Antiochus Epiphanes,
it probably refers as well to the ancestry or characteristics of the end times Antichrist.
Or it may refer to the Ezekiel 38 war led by Gog from the north. This is an example of an
isolated scripture that, while not appearing to have direct relationship to many other end
times prophecies, may nonetheless describe a key event, and represent one more example of
creative fulfillment that doesn�t fit our preconceived ideas.
World worships Antichrist
There will be a painfully clear distinction between those who worship the beast and God�s
people who don�t.
False prophet (2 horns like a lamb, speaks like a dragon)
performs signs (fire from heaven), forces world to take mark
and worship the Antichrist; kills all who don�t.
Rev 13:11-17; Matt 24:11,24
While the false prophet deceives many with his signs, apparently the Antichrist himself doesn�t
actually perform such signs, other than appearing to have been healed from a fatal wound.
Note that it is also this false prophet who forces people to take the mark to buy and sell,
all in the name of loyalty to the Antichrist.
Antichrist�s number is 666
Apparently another confirmation of the Antichrist�s identity is the mark, which is his name or
number. It will be possible for those Christians with insight to calculate this number as 666.
Many have shown how to equate famous names with this number by assigning number values to the
letters of the name, since Greek letters were identified with various numeric values. This is
again an example of prophecy being important only as corroboration, not as a predictor.
144,000 on Mt. Zion with the Lamb
At this point the 144,000 appear in the heavenly Jerusalem (Heb 12:22), having apparently
being either martyred or raptured. Verse 4 seems to point to a sacrificial martyrdom,
especially since �firstfruits� in 1 Cor 15:20 refers to resurrection from the dead.
Gospel preached worldwide.
Matt 24:14; Rev 14:6-7
Many believe that one of the preconditions for Christ�s coming is that Christians have reached
every person on the earth with the gospel. However, if this is not done exactly the way man
might expect, it appears the Father will supernaturally complete the fulfillment of his
prophetic Word, even to the point of sending an angel at the last moment to ensure that everyone
has an opportunity to repent and turn toward God.
Isa 13-14; Rev 14:8; Rev 18
One of the great prophetic themes is the destruction of Israel�s enemies. It appears that
the destruction of Babylon is both a near and far reference. While the near fulfillment was
the literal city located in present day Iraq, the end times fulfillment could refer to the
same physical location, some other city, or it could be a broader reference to a political,
economic, or religious system. In any event, it is likely that the prophetic Babylon will
in some way fulfill the same role as ancient Babylon, namely, a representation of the
worldly influence and domination over God�s people who have compromised their allegiance to him.
Warning for saints not to take the mark of the beast; they
may be martyred, but will have rest
The mark will be an indication of who has remained faithful to the Lord and who hasn�t. There
is no in between. Any �believer� taking the mark will suffer the eternal consequences of
unbelievers. Of course, a true believer would not take the mark and, by this time in the
tribulation period, would be well aware of the prophetic warnings. God�s grace will provide
strength to endure patiently even at the risk of martyrdom.
Son of man harvests the earth
This appears to be the first of two successive �reapings� of the earth. This one does not
indicate what is being reaped, but it uses the term harvest, which throughout the New Testament
refers to believers. These would likely be the believers still remaining alive on earth who
had not taken the mark of the beast and had escaped martyrdom.
Angels gather elect.
This gathering refers to those in heaven and on earth in conjunction with the Lord�s second
coming. As an example of prophetic timing being unpredictable, it is not clear from the text
exactly how and when this gathering is accomplished in relation to the physical appearing of the
Lord. It could be before, at the same time, or after. And it could be done as a single act or
as a series of acts.
Grapes of wrath gathered and pressed into blood
In this second �reaping� the object is explicitly the �grapes of wrath,� beginning the final
events of God�s ultimate wrath on the earth.
Hab 3:12-13; Isa 13:9
The day of God�s wrath is upon the earth. The day of the Lord is accompanied by many
prophetic signs mentioned in the Old Testament as well as Revelation.
Completion of God�s wrath--7 last plagues (bowls)
There are many theories about the structure of Revelation. Some consider the 7 bowl
judgments to be the parallel heavenly view of the 7 trumpet judgments, which represents the
earthly view of the same events. Others see the structure as a telescope, where the seventh
seal contains the seven trumpets, and the seventh trumpet contains the seven bowls. In this
structure, all of the events are sequential, with no parallel duplication. As we have
pointed out many times, such attempts to predetermine prophetic meaning are at best presumptuous,
and may even be counterproductive by limiting our interpretations and blinding us to potential
fulfillment in unexpected ways. For example, if verses 2-4 are a reference to some type of
final rapture, this may be an indication that prior to the �completion� God�s wrath, there is
still an opportunity for repentance. This could be an important message to those who find
themselves experiencing the trumpet judgments, and wondering if there is any hope for
deliverance from God�s wrath.
1st bowl - sores on those with the mark of the beast
This begins the final judgment. The punishments parallel similar plagues in the Exodus
from Egypt. That nation had also rejected God and his people.
2nd bowl - sea turns to blood and everything in it dies
3rd bowl - rivers and springs turn to blood
4th bowl - sun scorches with fire
5th bowl - beast�s kingdom in darkness
6th bowl - Euphrates dried, kings brought to Armageddon,
comes like a thief
This appears to be the final battle where all the beast�s forces fight against the Lord and his
hosts at his return. Does it also relate to the 200,000,000 troops in Rev 9:16 and the blood
flowing for 1,600 stadia in Rev 14:20? This is certainly the common picture of the battle of
Armageddon, but these verses are actually in quite separate passages. It is entirely possible
that they could represent different events as well.
What is verse 15 doing here? Is there some possibility of repentance for those who wake up to
what�s happening and finally reject Satan�s deception? Or is this just another example of
prophetic verses being mysteriously interspersed in apparently unrelated passages?
7th bowl - earthquake, hailstones
Verse 20 matches parts of the sixth seal. However, this doesn�t fit with any rational
structure and thus illustrates the difficulty in assuming that a structure even has to exist.
Could these be completely different events? How many times will every island and mountain
Great city Babylon
Great city Babylon who corrupted earth with adulteries, sits on 7 hills; 7 kings - 5 fallen,
1 is, 1 to come for awhile; beast who was, now is not, is an 8th but of the 7 kings; 10 kings
(to be) give authority for 1 hour to beast to destroy Babylon and war against the Lamb
There have been many interpretations of what Babylon represents, most commonly a governmental,
economic, or religious system, although it is explicitly described as the city that rules over
the kings of the earth. Likewise, the 7 kings and 10 kings have been variously interpreted.
Typically, however, the 7 kings are seen as being in historical sequence, whereas the 10 kings
Ten horns 3 uprooted before another horn who is destroyed with 4th beast, other 3 beasts
Dan 7:17-25; 8:9-12
These passages could very well parallel the 7 heads and 10 horns in Rev 12, 13, and 17.
Wedding of the Lamb and bride after Babylon destroyed
Christ on white horse
Christ on white horse with armies of heaven destroys kings and armies of earth and casts
beast and false prophet into fiery lake; birds ate flesh of those killed on earth
Israel invaded from north by cavalry troops from Russia, Persia, Ethiopia, Libya, Eastern
Europe, and southern Russia.
There are many interpretations of the Ezekiel 38-39 battle. While there seem to be common
elements with the Rev 19 battle, many have placed it earlier in the tribulation period.
Enemy supernaturally defeated--weapons burned
and flesh eaten by birds.
Antichrist attacked from south, invades Israel, subdues Egypt, but not Jordan, then fights
north and east and finally is defeated.
Again, these maneuvers could be placed at various times in the tribulation period, and could
be related to the Ezekiel 38-39 battle.
Jerusalem raped (Day of the Lord); 1/2 exiled; enemies destroyed.
This could relate to the Daniel 11 and Ezekiel 38-39 passages, although it appears to occur
at the last battle.
Lord destroys beast.
2 Thess 2:8
Comes suddenly, with angels, with fire, so all may see him.
Matt 16:27; Matt 24:27; 2 Thes 1:7-8
Jews mourn at Jesus� coming.
Matt 24:30; Rev 1:7
Lord�s coming--everyone will see him.
Jerusalem besieged and taken captive and finally delivered supernaturally with Mount of Olives
splitting and hills flattened, river flowing east to west.
Lord returns to Jerusalem as dwelling place.
Satan thrown into abyss for 1000 years.
Martyrs beheaded for not taking the mark of the beast are raised. They (and other saints)
reign with Christ for 1000 years.
While this passage was part of the prophet�s encouragement to build the second temple, after
the Babylon exile, it also has Messianic language, and could be another indication of Ezekiel�s
millennial temple being built.
Millennial temple with modified sacrificial system.
Nations at peace, following the Lord�s laws;
Jerusalem center of government.
Isa 2:1-5; Isa 11:1-10
Israel divided among tribes.
The millennial temple passages, along with the tribal divisions of land, are often sees as
figurative, but the level of detail and specificity given is too great to ignore. Another
example of putting prophetic passages on the shelf until events make it clear how they are
to be fulfilled.
Satan released to deceive nations and then be
cast into fiery lake forever.
Great white throne judgment of the wicked dead.
Earth and works burned up.
2 Pet 3:10
New heavens and new earth with God and men dwelling together.
Isa 65:17; Rev 21:1-8
Holy City Jerusalem coming from heaven
Rev 21:9-27; 22:1-5
Rewards everyone according to his works.
Is 40:10; Obad 1:15; Rev 22:12